News Archive    (2005 - 2015)

  1. 2015

  2. December

  3. India declared at the WSIS+10 Meeting, December 15-16, United Nations General Assembly, that «we should also aim to create a global convention to address issues of cybersecurity and cybercrime.»

  4. China declared at a conference in China, December 16, an opposition to all categories of cybercrime, including industrial espionage, cyber surveillance, attacks against goverments networks, and that no countries should define acceptable norms of cyber behaviuor.

  5. China also declared at the conference in China, December 16, that participants have reached a consensus on the importance of legislation in the field of cyber security, and the necessity for a code of conduct with universal standards, in order to prevent and fight cybercrime.

  6. Russia declared at the conference in China, December 16, on a greater role for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

  7.   The first U.S.- China High-Level Joint Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues was held in Washington DC, on December 1, 2015. The primary objectives of the dialogue were to review the timeliness and quality of responses to requests for information and assistance. They reached agreement on a document establishing guidelines for requesting assistance, and for responding to such requests. Next dialogue will take place in Bejing in June 2016.

  1. November

  2. Cyber3Conference Okinawa2015, Japan, November 7-8, 2015.

  3. October

  4. The Government of Papua New Guinea has stated that a key objective of the cybercrime policy was the development of a standalone cybercrime legislation. 

  5. South Africa has published the draft of the new Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity Bill for public comment. The current legal framework has not kept pace with the dynamic nature of cybercrime.

  6. September

  7. Europol-INTERPOl Cybercrime Conference was held in The Hague, The Netherlands. 350 cyber specialists from law enforcement, the private sector and academia from 66 countries participated. The main focus was the need  to strengthen cross-border cooperation in investigation, information exchange and capacity building on cybercrime.

  8. July

  9. Canada has ratified the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention on July 8, 2015.

  10. China has enacted a new National Security Law, including cybersecurity  and cybercrime

  11. June

  12. Sri Lanka has ratified the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention on May 29, 2015.

  13. May

  14. In United Kingdom has the Serious Crime Act 2015 received Royal Assent. This Act also amends the Computer Misuse Act 1990 to ensure sentences for attacks on computer systems fully reflect the damage they cause.

  15. April

  16. UNCTAD and ECOWAS are planning to harmonize cybercrime laws in the West African region.

  17. March

  18. The Shoura Council in Saudi Arabia has agreed to add claims for defamation  in the cybercrime laws.

  19. February

  20. President Obama spoke at the White House Summit on Cybersecurity and Consumer Protection at Stanford University, California. He signed also an Executive Order on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework.

  21. January

  22. President Obama has launched key policy initiatives to highlight the  importance of cybersecurity.

  23. 2014

  24. December

  25. Canada has passed laws that will allow the country to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (2001).

  26. November

  27. The 2014 ITU Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, South Korea, resulted in a consensus not to expand the ITU´s role in international Internet governance, and no decision was made to place a greater emphasis on the rights of States above other stakeholders. 

  28. The Inter-American Cooperation Portal on Cybercrime includes information exchange and cooperation among Organizations of American States (OAS).

  29. October

  30. A Bill to fight cyberbullying has been introduced in the Canadian Parliament. The Bill shall have its third reading in the House of Commons after Thanksgiving.

  31. INTERPOL has signed a cooperation agreement with Kaspersky Lab on September 30, and Europol signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Kaspersky Lab on October 1. The signing ceremonies took place in Singapore in conjunction with the INTERPOL-Europol Cybercrime Conference 2014. Kaspersky Lab will provide its products, intelligence and support to the INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) in Singapore.

  32. September

  33. Qatar has adopted a new law on cybercrime with immediate enforcement.

  34. July

  35. The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary had a Hearing on the subject of: Taking Down Botnets: Public and Private Efforts to Disrupt and Dismantle Cybercriminal Networks.

  36. June

  37. The East African Community (EAC), UNODC, The Commonwealth Secretariat, and Uganda National Information Technology Authority (NITA), have at a meeting in Kampala, discussed preventing and combating cybercrime.

  38. The United Kingdom Government are proposing a full life sentence for «cyberattacks which result in loss of life, serious illness or injury or serious damage to national security, or a significant risk thereof» as presented in The Queen´s speech.

  39. May

  40. International cybercrime police investigations is being hampered by data sovereignty laws, according to Australian Federal Police Assistant Commissioner Tim Morris.

  41. The Meeting of The Commonwealth Law Ministers in Gaborone, Botswana, on May 5-8, adopted the Report of The Commonwealth Working Group of Experts on Cybercrime. The Working Group`s Report was originally finalised in July 2013, and was considered by Senior Officials of Commonwealth Law Ministers in September 2013.

  42. April

  43. The West African countries discussed cyber legislation at a four-day UNCTAD-ECOWACS Workshop in Ghana.

  44. Bahrain prepares a new cybercrimelaw that already has been approved by the  Parliament.

  45. March

  46. The cooperation between United States and the European Union has been broaden on cybersecurity, also including human rights online.

  47. February

  48. Europol European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) has a one year Anniversary. A report was discussed at a conference organized by the EU Commission.

  49. A new cybercrime law is under developing in Qatar. The draft proposal has been accepted by the Cabinet.

  50. January

  51. The United States President has made remarks to the Report from the Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies.

  52. 2013

  53. December

  54. The United States President´s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies has in December presented the Report: Liberty and Security in a Changing World. The Report sets forth 46 recommendations, and recognizes the need to maintain the public trust, increase transparency, and enhancing the privacy protection also to non-US persons.
    A permanent position of a Public Interest Advocate should be established to represent the interests of privacy and civil liberties before the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). In addition, increasing the transparency of the Courts decisions, and changing the appoitment process for the Judges.   

  55. The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a Resolution on privacy in the digital age. The Resolution included Member States «to respect and protect the right to privacy, including in the context of digital communication.» The Resolution calls on all States «to review their procedures, practices and legislation regarding the surveillance of communications ...»

  56. Kapil Sibal, Minister of Communications and IT, India, made a presentation at a NASSCOM conference in December, including: « Now, the Internet world today does not allow us to find where the attack came from and who attacked us, nor does it allow us to disclose the identity of the attackers. We need to develop global rules for that. We need a global accord for that and we then need a system of cyber justice.»

  57. November

  58. The African Union Convention on Cybersecurity (AUCC) will be signed in January 2014. The Convention includes 15 African States in the prevention of cybercrime «through the organisation of electronic transactions, protection of personal data, promotion of cybersecurity, e-governance and combating cybercrime.»

  59. The Canadian Government has introduced to the Canadian Parliament,    amendments to the Criminal Code that would make the non-consensual distribution of intimate images (cyber-bullying) illegal. The Bill includes also amendments in procedural legislation and the Evidence Act.

  60. October

  61. DIRECTIVE 2013/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the The Council of 12. August 2013, on attacks against information systems and replacing Council Framework Decision 2005/222/JHA, was adopted, and entered into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

  62. The Seoul International Conference on Cyberspace 2013, has adopted a Seoul Framework for and Commitment to Open and Secure Cyberspace. The Framework includes a Section 5 on cybercrime.

  63. September

  64. In Bahrain the Cabinet has approved a proposal for a comprehensive law against cybercrime.

The National Congress of Peru has approved a new law on cybercrime,   including amendments of the proposal from the Government.

  1. August

  2. In Bangladesh the Cabinet has approved amendments in the Communication Technology Act of 2006.

  3. An overview of cybercrime laws in India, especially in the Information Technology Act of 2000, last amended in 2008.


  1. The European Parliament has amended the penalties for cybercrime on attacks against information systems, EU Directive 2013/40. In the event of  a cyberattack, EU countries will have to repond to urgent requests within for assistance within eight hours. The Directive came into force on September 3, 2013.

  2. April

  3. Tanzania is preparing a Draft Act on cybercrime that will especially protect the government, business and banks from financial fraud.

  4. March

  5. In Trinidad and Tobago a draft law on cybersecurity and cybercrime has been presented to the Legislative Review Committee. It is estimated that it will be sent to the Parliament within two months for enactment as law. Assistance has been given by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

  6. The legal framework on cybercrime in Samoa was presented at a Workshop on fighting cybercrime for the Pacific.

  7. February

  8. The Supreme Court in the Philippines has declared in a temporary restraining order, that the new cybercrimelaw should not enter into effect.

  9. January

  10. In Australia the Attorney-General has announced that the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime enter into force in Australia, on March 1, 2013. The Australian Cybercrime Legislation Amendment Act 2012 received Royal Assent on September 12, 2012.

  11. Jamaica has through the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) engaged Professor Marco Gercke, Germany, as a consultant to provide technical and legal assistance in reviewing the excisting cybercrime law. The Cybercrime Act was introduced in 2010.

  12. 2012

  13. December

  14. The International Criminal Law Network (ICLN) organized a Cybercrime Conference in The Hague on December 13. Judge Stein Schjolberg introduced a proposal for an International Criminal Court or Tribunal for Cyberspace.

  15. November

  16. The United Arabic Emirate (UAE) has enacted a new cybercrime law, including using the Internet to transmit, publish or promote pornographic material, gambling activities and indecent acts.

  17. In Brazil, The Chamber of Deputies, the lower legislative house, has approved      

   two cybercrime laws. Both Bills may now be signed by the President


  1. UNODC has published a practical guide, The use of the Internet for terrorist purposes, to Member States for more effective investigation and prosecution of terrorist cases involving the use of the Internet.

  2. The Dutch Minister of Security & Justice has in a letter to the Parliament expressed the Governments intention to draft new cybercrime legislation.

  3. September

  4. Judge Stein Schjolberg made a presentation on cybercrime at the 13th International Criminal Law Congress, Queenstown, New Zealand, September 12-16. See his summary (pdf).

  5. Australia has enacted the Cybercrime Legislation Amendment Act 2012, including the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.

  6. August

  7. The U.S. Senate has blocked the Cybersecurity Act of 2012.

  8. July

  9. Costa Rica has adopted Law 9048 as amendments to the Criminal Code, including new cybercrime offences.

  10. June

  11. The House of Representatives in The Philippines has approved the third and final reading of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. Offences punishable under the Act, includes also offences such as cybersex, unsolicited commercial communications, cyber defamation, and cyber threats.

  12. May

  13. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has organized a regional expert meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, for a contribution to the UNODC global Study/Working Group on cybercrime. The Group shall study aims to strengthen existing national and international legal responses to cybercrime.

  14. April

  15. The EastWest Institute Cybercrime Legal Working Group is developing recommendations for a consensus-building set of new legal mechanisms for cybersecurity and cybercrime at the United Nations level.  «I am not willing to accept Deadlock», said the Chair Judge Stein Schjolberg.

  16. March

  17. Potential new legal mechanisms against global cyberattacks and cybercrime, including a International Criminal Tribunal for Cyberspace,  was introduced by Judge Stein Schjolberg. 

  18. The Shoura Council in Saudi Arabia has approved the Arab League Convention to combat cyber crimes.

  19. A Legal Analysis has been published of the The Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S.2111) in the US Senate.

  20. February

  21. The Bill C-30 has been recommended to the House of Commons in Canada entitled: «An Act to enact the Investigating and Preventing Criminal Electronic Communications Act and to amend the Criminal Code and other Acts.»

  22. January

  23. The Senate in The Philippines has approved the final reading of the Senate Bill 2796: The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. (pdf) In addition to the traditional Articles on substantive criminal law, the Bill also includes offences on cybersex and cybersquatting.

  24. 2011

  25. December

  26. In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (H.R. 1540), the U.S. Congress has in Sec. 954 MILITARY ACTIVITIES IN CYBERSPACE, affirmed the policy principles and legal regimes applicable on conflicts in cyberspace:

    «Congress affirms that the Department of Defense has the capability, and upon direction by the President may conduct offensive operations in cyberspace to defend our Nation, Allies and interests, subject to—
    (1) the policy principles and legal regimes that the Department follows for kinetic capabilities, including the law of armed conflict; and
    (2) the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.).»

  27. China is willing to work with the United States in order to advance the development of information technology and fight cybercrime. The two countries should respect each other and deepen mutual understanding. The two countries should also jointly play active roles within the framework  of the United Nations mechanisms.

  28. November

  29. Professor Marco Gercke, Germany, has published an article: «10 years Convention on Cybercrime - Achievements and Failures of the Council of Europe´s Instrument in the fight against Inter-related Crimes». He  concludes that it is today one of the most important legal frameworks in Europe.

He is listing the reasons why the Convention did not succeed at a global level as follows:

   «It starts with a missing involvement of developing countries in the drafting   process, a more demanding accession procedure compared to UN Conventions, a lack of updates in response to latest trends, the absence of regulations for electronic evidence and liability of Internet Service Provider (ISP), missing field offices outside Europe and maybe most importantly a lack of supporting capacity building that is especially relevant for developing countries.»   See Computer Law Review International 2011, Issue 5, page 142-149.

  1. October

  2. INTERPOL and Europol have agreed on establishing a collaborative action plan against transnational crime, including cybercrime.

  3. A Bill to combat cybercrime has been introduced in Bahrain.

  4. Read the debate in the Australian House of Representatives on the Cybercrime Legislation Amendment Bill of 2011; Second Reading.

  1. September

  2. China, Russia, Tajikstan, and Uzbekistan have sent a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, and suggests a code of conduct on the use of information technologies by countries. It is focused on threats to international stability, fighting cybercrime and prevent the use of cyberspace for terrorism.


  1. China - The Supreme People´s Court (SPC) and Supreme People´s Procuratorate (SPP) have issued legal interpretations on hacking and other Internet crimes. The interpretations entered into force on September 1, 2011.  

  2. July

  3. Russia has made a suggestion for drafting a United Nations Convention on combatting cybercrime and cyberattacks. This is necessary because the excisting Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime is outdated.

  1. June

  2. In Japan the Diet has enacted legislation that make the creation, acquisition or storage of computer viruses a criminal act. It also make it criminal the sending of pornographic email spam

  3. The Government of Australia has introduced cybercrime legislation to the Parliament to combat global cyberattacks.

  4. May

  5. A proposal for a new legal mechanism on combatting cybercrime and global cyberattacks has been launched by Judge Stein Schjolberg: An International Criminal Court or Tribunal for Cyberspace (ICTC)

  1. April

  2. A White House Draft Bill in the United States would expand the US Penal Code Title 18, Chapter 47, Section 1030, on Fraud and related activity in connection with computers. The Bill have proposals for cybercrime, including a series of criminal offences for cyberattacks and confidentiality abuses. The Bill have also details on critical information security.

  1. March

  2. A Criminal Justice Bill is planned in Ireland that will target serious and complex offences, including cybercrime.

  3. Switzerland has approved the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, and is expected to ratify the Convention later this year.

  4. February

  5. An International Criminal Tribunal for Cyberspace should be established as an United Nations court of law for the most serious cybercrimes of global concern. Such Court may have its seat in The Hague or in Singapore, discusses Judge Stein Schjolberg, Norway, in a book «A Global Treaty on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime» that was published on February 23.

  6. The government of Cameroon has introdused a new law on cybercrime in the Parliament. The Bill would define major cybercrimes, including pedophilia, child pornography, infringments to human dignity, the propagation of false rumors and intrusion into the banking system.

  7. January

  8. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has on January 17-21, organized the first conference for the open-ended intergovernmental expert group that was recommended in the Salvador Declaration Article 42 at the United Nations Crime Congress in Salvador, Brazil, April 12-19, 2010.  The recommendation was adopted by the UN General Assembly in its resolution                 65/230. This expert group shall conduct a comprehensive study of the problem of cybercrime, with a view to examening options to strengthen existing and to promote new national and international legal  or other responses to cybercrime. 

  9. The United Arabic Emirates (UAE) is working on updating the cybercrime law, in order to cover legal loopholes.

  10. 2010

  11. December

  12. The parliament in Canada has enacted laws aginst spam. (pdf) The Senate approved the Fighting Internet and Wireless Spam Act, including criminal offences.

  13. Venezuela has enacted cybercrime laws.

  14. November

  15. China has suggestions for strengthening the international law enforcement cooperation and joining hands in fighting against transnational cybercrime. The Network Security Protection Service of Ministry of Public Security has introduced suggestions for solutions.

  16. The INTERPOL General Assembly has elected Ronald K. Noble for a third term as Secretary General. His vision for the future development of INTERPOL was also the creation of the  INTERPOL Global Complex (IGC) in Singapore. The IGC will focus especially in enhancing preparedness to effectively counter cybercrime.

  17. The State Duma in Russia considers revising the cybercrime legislation. The State Duma Committee on Information Policy, Information Technology and Communication is open for cooperation on measures that could strengthen the fight against spam.


  1. The Government in Bangladesh is considering a draft Bill to curb cybercrime and pornography. The Bill has been sent from the Home Ministry to the Law Ministry for vetting.

  2. In Canada the Government has introduced in the House of Commons two Bills to fight Cybercrime. The proposed Bill on Investigative Powers for the 21st Century Act, will among other provisions, also make it illegal to possess a computer virus for the purpose of mischief. The amendments would update Section 342.2 of the Criminal Code. 


  1. Crime and Policing in Virtual Worlds, a paper by Marc Goodman, Senior Advisor at Interpol Steering Committee on Information Technology Crime.

  2. Namibia is planning for a Communications Bill, including cybercrime.

  3. The European Commission in the European Union has presented a proposal for a new cybercrime legislation to be adopted in all member countries. It willl increase the Eu protection against cyberattacks.  

  4. August

  5. Ireland signed the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime on February 28, 2002, but no legislation preparing for a ratification has been introdused. A recent denial of service attack shows a need for action.

  6. The European Commission in EU is planning to establish a European rapid response system for cyber attacks, and may present an EU Internal Security Strategy in October 2010.

  7. The Cabinet in Jordan has approved a temporary Cybercrime Law.

  8. July

  9. Marc Goodman, Senior Advisor at Interpol Steering Committee on Information Technology Crime, is an expert on the future crime. He made a  presentation and predicted that cybercrime of 1990 or 2005 will have little in common with the technical threats we are facing in 2010 and beyond.

  10. A Bill on Cybercrime and Cybersecurity has been introduced to the National Assembly in Cameroon.

  11. June

  12. The Turkish Transportation Minister Bilali Yıldırım has declared that Turkey will soon sign The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.

  13. A conference on cybercrime is held in Oslo, Norway, June 16 - 17 (pdf). The conference Crime in Virtual Worlds covers identity theft, phishing, massive and coordinated cyber attacks, cloud computing and VOIP-security issues.


  1. May

  2. The East African Communications Organisations (EACO) will work to establish and harmonize Internet security policies and Internet laws in the East Africa region.

  3. Professor Solange Ghernaouti-Hélie, University Lausanne, Switzerland, gave a presentation on the «Need for a United Nations Cyberspace Treaty» (pdf) at the ITU - High Level debate on Cybersecurity and Cyberspace in Geneva May 12, 2010.

  4. Judge Stein Schjolberg presented a paper on: Wanted - A United Nations Cyberspace Treaty, including cybercrime, at the EastWest Institute First Worldwide Cybersecurity Summit in Dallas, May 3-5, 2010

  5. The Council of the European Union is developing a new concerted strategy to combat cybercrime

  6. April

  7. A proposal for a United Nations cyber crime treaty presented by judge Stein Schjolberg at the United Nations Crime Congress in Salvador, Brazil, April 12-19, 2010.

  8. Mars

  9. Azerbaijan, Montenegro and Portugal have now ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.
    Total number of ratifications of the 2001 Convention are now 29, while total number of signatures not followed by ratifications are 17.

  1. February

  2. China will make amendments in penal legislation by strengthen cybercrime laws. New measures on the interpretation of hacking or illegal access, and how such cases are handled by courts may be released.

  3. January

  4. The OAS working group on cybercrime has recommended several intiatives, including legislative steps to define cybercrime and how to prosecute it.

  5. 2009

  6. December

  7. The senate in Jamaica passed The Cybercrimes Act. The Bill was approved with six amendments. 

  8. The Portuguese Parliament has passed a new law on cybercrime

  9. A new dialogue between the US and Russia on cybersecurity and cybercrime

  10. November

  11. Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev signed the law on approval of Convention on Cyber-Crime.

  12. October

  13. The Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008 entered into force in India. Cyberterrorism is now punishable  with life in prison, and it includes also new cybercrime offences such as identity theft, cyber-stalking, and cyber harassment.

  14. In Australia, the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment Bill was rewritten by the federal government.

  15. September

  16. A Bill has been presented in Jamaica providing legal sanctions for the criminal misuse of data.

  17. July

  18. A Bill titled "Fostering a Global Respons to Cyber Attacks Act" (S.1438) was introduced in the US Senate on July 10. The Bill includes in Section (6) as follows:

    1. "Relevant international cybersecurity agreements focus only on issues relating to cyber crime and common operating standards and have not been signed by certain countries from which cyberattacks may be launched."

      The Bill also includes a proposal for cooperative activities for international
      engagements with other governments.

  1. June

  2. The European Union is planning amendment in the Council Framework Decision on Attacks Against Information Systems, which went into force in 2005.


  1. The Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget) has on May 28 adopted the New Penal Code, including several provisions on cybercrime. See §§ 192, 201, 202, 204, 205b, 206, 311, 351, 361, and 371. The new penal code will enter into force in 2010-2011.


  1. A new Bill on cybercrime has been filed in The Philippine Senate.

  2. Bangladesh has introduced a new law on cybercrime.


  1. Germany has ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.

  2. In Norway a Bill on a new Criminal Law (2008-2009) has in § 202 introduced a provision on identity theft, using the term Identity Infringements that reads as follows:
    “With a fine or imprisonment not exceeding 2 years shall whoever be punished, that without authority possesses of a means of identity of another, or acts with the identity of another or with an identity that easily may be confused with the identity of another person, with the intent of
    a) procuring an economic benefit for oneself or for another person, or
    b) causing a loss of property or inconvenience to another person.”
    (unofficial translation)


  1. President Barack Obama has directed the National Security and Homeland Security Advisors to conduct a review of the plan, programs, and activities underway throughout the government dedicated to cyber security, including new regulations to combat cybercrime.

  2. US Vice President Joe Biden gave a presentation at the 45th Munich Conference on Security Policy on February 7. Among many issues he emphasized the need to tackle terrorism and cyber-security.


  1. The Kenya Communications (Amendment) Act (pdf) was passed by the Kenyan Parliament and signed into law by the President on January 2. The Act includes legislation on cybercrime in Sections 83 W-Z and 84 A- F on: unauthorized access to computer data, access with intent to commit offences, unauthorized access to and interception of computer service, unauthorized modification of computer material, damaging or denying access to computer system, unauthorized disclosure of passwords, unlawful possession of devices and data, electronic fraud, tampering with computer source documents, and publishing of obscene information in electronic form.



  1. New legislation on spam has entered into force in Ireland, including fines up to 250.000 Euro, or ten percent of the offenders turnover.

  2. Cybercrime legislation has been adopted in India, amending the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000)

  3. Sri Lanka will soon be a signatory State to the Convention on Cybercrime


  1. ITU has published the Global Strategic Report. The report contains presentations on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime.

  2. Judge Stein Schjolberg was awarded a Silver Medal by the ITU Secretary General, Dr. Hamadoun I. Touré in Geneva on November 12. He was awarded the Silver Medal in recognition of his contribution as the Chairman of the global High Level Experts Group (HLEG) on cybersecurity.

Judge Schjolbergs Speech of Thanks to the Secretary General (pdf)

  1. At the ITU-Meeting on November 12 in Geneva, Judge Schjolberg made a proposal for a Geneva Protocol on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime (pdf):

  2. "Cybersecurity and cybercrime, including massive and coordinated cyber attacks against countries critical information infrastructure, and terrorist misuse of the Internet, are of critical concern to the global society.

  3. A global agreement or Protocol at the United Nations level should be established that includes developing and putting into action solutions aimed at addressing the global challenges. International Telecommunication union (ITU) in Geneva is uniquely positioned for developing a global agreement or protocol on cybersecurity and cybercrime. It may be then called the Geneva Protocol, since the importance to the global society is almost equally as important as the Kyoto Protocol. A Geneva Protocol may be a non-binding statement of mutual intentions."


  1. Amendments of the Computer Misuse Act in the United Kingdom came into force on October 1.

  2. In Gambia a draft Information and Communications Bill 2008, including computer misuse and cybercrime issues, has been introduced.

  3. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has initiated drafting a report on a preceding meeting on regional guidelines on cybercrime.


  1. ITU has publisihed a Chairmans Report (pdf) by the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA), that includes stratgies for the development of model cybercrime legislation that are globally applicable and interoperable with existing national and regional legislative measures.


  1. The United States Senate has passed a Bill on Cybercrime.

  2. A Computer Misuse Bill has been presented in Uganda.


  1. Azerbaijan to join the Convention on Cybercrime.


  1. Italy has ratified the Convention on Cybercrime on June 5.

  2. A review of Australian procedural laws is prepared in order to eventually accede to the Convention on Cybercrime.

  3. A new comprehensive OECD report calls for a strategy for a global partnership against malware (pdf. 1.6 mb).


  1. The government of New Zealand has outlined plans to make the country party to the Convention on Cybercrime by 2009.

  2. A Cybercrime Bill is being prepared in Algeria and may be submitted to the Parliamanet by the end of 2008.


  1. Russia has refused to sign the European Convention on Cyber Crime

  2. United Kingdom: Cybercrime legsilation approved by the Police and Justice Act, Section 35-38, has not yet been implemented.

  3. An Overview of the US Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws (PDF) is updated from The Congressional Research Service, a congressional support agency.


  1. The Senate (pdf) of the Italian Parliament has on February 27 approved and ratified the Convention on Cybercrime.


  1. The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology in Azerbaijan debates an initiative on acceding to the Convention on Cybercrime.

  2. A proposal in 2004 on amending the Penal Code in Japan, in order to ratify the Convention on Cybercrime, is still stalled in the Diet (Parliament).


  1. A statement on combating computer crime and identity theft (pdf) concerning the Privacy and Cybercrime Enforcement Act of 2007, has been presented before the US Congress.

  2. The President of Pakistan has promulgated the Electronic Crime Ordinance 2007.



  1. In Botswana a Bill on Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes has been presented to the National Assembly. The Bill will go for third reading in the near future before it is signed into a law.

  2. November

  3. A new Bill S.2168, The Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act of 2007, has passed the U.S. Senate and been referred to the House of Representatives. Damage affecting ten or more protected computers, creating and operating a bot-network would now become a federal crime.


  1. The Secretary General of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Geneva has launched an initiative on Global Cybersecurity and appointed a High-Level Experts Group in order to deliver strategic reports on five work areas, including legal measures such as the development of a model cybercrime legislation. A model cybercrime legislation that is globally applicable and interoperable with existing national and regional legislative measures.


  1. Estonia lawmakers are considering amendments to the penal code on cybercrime, including making cyber attacks an act of terrorism when committed with the same intent. In addition, adding to the penal code an article covering the preparation to commit cybercrime.


  1. Botswana will in shortly present a cybercrime bill to the Parliament.


  1. The Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention Committee (T-CY) has at a meeting on June 13-14 agreed that pin codes for electronic use were computer data when input into a computer device, and so covered by the definition of computer data under paragraph b of Article 1.

  2. US Department of Justice has submitted a Bill to Congress - the Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act of 2007 - amending 18 U.S.C. § 1028 (a)(7) on Identity Theft

  3. The government of Uganda has prepared a proposal for new laws on cybercrime


  1. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has recommended that the members adopt a treaty on cybercrimes among the Gulf States.


  1. A new cybercrime law has been enacted in Thailand

  2. Germany has adopted new penal laws on cybercrime in Section 202a, 303a and 303b.

  3. European Union (EU) Commission will concider an initiative regarding legislation against identity theft in 2007: towards a general policy on the fight against cybercrime.

  4. Sri Lanka has enacted the Computer Crimes Bill


  1. A proposal in Indonesia suggests that the country should join the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.


  1. In Thailand, a new draft of the Cybercrime Bill will be presented to the National Legislative Assembly.


  1. According to a draft amendment to the Penal Code in Sweden, denial of service attacks (DoS) will be made a criminal offence.

  2. Iceland has on January 29 ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime.


  1. In Pakistan A Cybercrime Bill titled the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Bill 2006 has been adopted by the Federal Cabinet.



  1. In India, a new Bill has been introduced to the Parliament, Lok Sabha, to amend the Information Technology Act of 2000. The Bill amends provisions on cybercrime in the Penal Code, the Evidence Act and the Criminal Procedure Code.


  1. United Kingdom: The Police and Justice Act 2006 Chapter 48 amend the Computer Misuse act, see Part 5 sections 35-38.


  1. Saudi Arabia has passed laws covering cybercrime. The Shoura Council has in October enacted provisions on illegal access, data interference, etc.

  2. On October 12 Armenia ratified the European Convention on Cybercrime and the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer system


  1. The government of Germany has on September 20 proposed a new draft law on cybercrime aiming to close any remaining loopholes.


  1. On August 3, the United States Senate ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. It will come into force on January 1 2007.


  1. United Kingdom: New amendments in the Police and Justice Bill


  1. The Dutch Parliament enacted on May 31 new legislation on Cybercrime

  2. In Bangladesh, a draft Bill on Information and Communication Technology has been introduced in the Parliament


  1. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) launched at a conference on Partnerships for Global Cybersecurity in Geneva May 15-16, the global portal Cybersecurity Gateway.

  2. East African countries coordinates cybercrimelaws and are planning on harmonizing legislation by the end of 2007.


  1. The Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention Committee (T-CY) has at a meeting on March 20-21, agreed that the definition of "computer systems" in Article 1.a. of the Convention includes:
    modern mobile telephones which are multifunctional and have among their functions the capacity to produce, process and transmit data, such as accessing the Internet, sending e-mail, transmitting attachments such as photographs, and downloading documents.
    Similarly it was recognized that personal digital assistants, with or without wireless functionality, also produce, process and transmit data.


  1. A joint legal initiative on cybercrime was held in Brunei, March 23, 2006, between Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. New laws dealing with cybercrime are under serious consideration in Brunei

  2. Kuwait is ready to fight all kinds of cybercrime. A draft law is planned to incriminate all computer-related crimes.


  1. United Arabic Emirates (UAE) - Cyber-Crime Law No 2 has been issued by the President. (february 13, 2006)


  1. United Kingdom - Police and Justice Bill (119), Sections 33-36, introdused in the House of Commons. (january 25. 2006)

  2. France - Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. (january 10)


  1. The Netherlands - A committee proposal for legislation on Computercriminaliteit introdused to First Chamber (Senate) (December 20)

  2. Norway - Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (November 4)

  3. Nigeria: - Computer security& critical information infrastructure protection bill 2005 (Sb254) has been introdused to the National Assembly

  4. Indonesia - The Electronic Transaction and Information Law was submitted to the House (July)